Well a few things. First he needs cycling shoes with the pedals and cleats to work with them. The shoe holds a cleat that clips into the pedal allowing the rider to both push down and pull up. Its a much more effective pedal stroke. Next would be some quality cycling shorts or bibs. Puts padding in the right places. After that Id add some sort of eye wear. I ride with regular sunglasses, but cycling glasses often can come in various shades including clear to provide eye protection when the sun isn't out. Provides some protection to the eye from things that might otherwise be in the eye.
If he is going to cycle with a team, I'd talk to the coach and get an idea of what training they want to see happen. Watch and listen. He will tell you what he did if you ask. Listen for aches and pains that might signal over training, and encourage when you can. IF you have a concern, talk to the coach. If this is something he is doing on his own, sit down with him and have him explain why he is doing what he is doing, then address your concern together. Not many 15 year old kids will admit to their friends they listen, but they do.
Right down my ally I'm a 13-14 in Florida. If he's going to be on a team wait to get apparel and mabye just borrow someone's for the first ride with the team to see how you like the people then buy the team kit but otherwise he will need bibs( much better than shorts) and a jersey and buy mavic shoes of nashbar with look keo pedals and cleats
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